The depth of isolation in the ghetto is also evident in black speech patterns, which have evolved steadily away from Standard American English. Because of their intense social isolation, many ghetto residents have come to speak a language that is increasingly remote from that spoken by American whites. Black street speech, or more formally, Black English Vernacular, has its roots in the West Indian creole and Scots-Irish dialects of the eighteenth century. As linguists have shown, it is by no means a “degenerate,” or “illogical” version of Standard American English; rather, it constitutes a complex, rich, and expressive language in its own right, with a consistent grammar, pronunciation, and lexicon all its own.

Douglas Massey and Nancy A. Denton, Chapter 6: “The Perpetuation of the Underclass,” p. 162 (American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass)

As linguists have shown, it is by no means a “degenerate,” or “illogical” version of Standard American English; rather, it constitutes a complex, rich, and expressive language in its own right, with a consistent grammar, pronunciation, and lexicon all its own.

(via deux-zero-deux)

(via timemachineyeah)

yahooentertainment:

xpantherstuff asked: Which movie was more challenging, Avatar or Guardians of the Galaxy?
Zoe Saldana: I think they both present their own individual challenge. For Avatar, everything was added in post [produciton]— the way I was going to look… When I wasn’t learning an alien language… I was riding a horse… I was learning three different forms of martial arts and I was working with Cirque du Soliel acrobats. With Guardians it was a grueling process of hair and makeup… You kind of have to keep yourself in a mind frame… put one foot in the front of the other. The thing that makes them identical is that the reward exceeds every sacrifice.

yahooentertainment:

xpantherstuff asked: Which movie was more challenging, Avatar or Guardians of the Galaxy?

Zoe Saldana: I think they both present their own individual challenge. For Avatar, everything was added in post [produciton]— the way I was going to look… When I wasn’t learning an alien language… I was riding a horse… I was learning three different forms of martial arts and I was working with Cirque du Soliel acrobats. With Guardians it was a grueling process of hair and makeup… You kind of have to keep yourself in a mind frame… put one foot in the front of the other. The thing that makes them identical is that the reward exceeds every sacrifice.

(via z-saldana)